The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health emergency. Data on the effect of COVID-19 in pregnancy are limited to small case series.
To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes in pregnancy and the vertical transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed for 116 pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia from 25 hospitals in China between January 20 and March 24, 2020. Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed by testing for SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal pharyngeal swab samples.
The median gestational age on admission was 38+0 (IQR 36+0-39+1) weeks. The most common symptoms were fever (50.9%, 59/116) and cough (28.4%, 33/116); 23.3% (27/116) patients presented without symptoms. Abnormal radiologic findings were found in 96.3% (104/108) of cases. There were eight cases (6.9%, 8/116) of severe pneumonia but no maternal deaths. One of eight patients (1/8) that presented in the first- and early-second-trimester had a missed spontaneous abortion. Twenty-one of 99 patients (21.2%, 21/99) that had delivered had preterm birth, including six with preterm premature ruptured of membranes. The rate of spontaneous preterm birth before 37 weeks was 6.1% (6/99). There was one case of severe neonatal asphyxia that resulted in neonatal death. Eighty-six of the 100 neonates that had testing for SARS-CoV-2 had negative results, of these ten neonates had paired amniotic fluid and cord blood samples that were tested negative for SARS-CoV-2.
SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm birth. There is no evidence of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection when the infection manifests during the third-trimester of pregnancy.